AICAR is a peptide that has a molecular formula of C9H15N4O8P and a molecular mass of 338.211. It is occasionally known by the names ZMP, AICA ribonucleotide, Acadesine, or the more scientific sounding 5-aminoimidozloe-4 carboxamide ribonucleotide. It is an intermediate within the generation of inosine monophosphate, which enables it to play a vital role in metabolic regulation.
AICAR and Enzymes
Scientific study based on animal test subjects has been able to hone in on AICAR’s ability to enter cardiac cells and prohibit the creation of two specific enzymes; adenosine kinase (ADK), and adenosine deaminase (ADA). The first enzyme serves to catalyze the transfer of the gamma phosphate from ATP to adenosine, which then serves as a controller of aggregations of both extracellular and intracellular adenine nucleotides. The second enzyme breaks down adenosine which then is responsible for the turnover in nucleic acid in tissue. Because these enzymes are blocked, AICAR allows for an accelerated stimulation of glucose uptake and an increase in the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases α and β in skeletal muscle tissue. These two processes combine to form an accelerated process of energy conversion. Additionally, the peptide has been known to suppress the process of programmed cell death by lowering the production of oxygen compounds that are found within the cellular unit.
AICAR and Ischemic Injury
According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that AICAR can be linked to the protection against and the treatment of a cardiac ischemic injury. Generally speaking, an ischemic injury is caused because of a restriction of blood supply to tissues, which in turn causes an insufficient amount of the oxygen and glucose needed to keep the tissue of animal test subjects alive. Ischemic conditions can form in various places within the body, and is linked to a host of several processes, including:
In the case of a cardiac ischemic injury, the condition is directly linked to the functionality of the myocardium, more commonly known as the heart muscle. While the condition can sometimes be without symptoms, it is frequently accompanied by chest pain that is brought upon by a symptom known as angina pectoris, which is a lack of sufficient blood flow to the brain. According to scientific study on animal test subjects, AICAR’s mechanisms have indicated that the peptide can potentially aid in prohibiting the type of blood flow restriction that would normally be a key part in creating an ischemic episode. This would lower the restrictions of blood flow to the heart muscle, which would then partially decrease the risk of heart failure. What’s more, it has been thought that AICAR can be used as a stabilizing agent in the wake of an ischemic episode, as it would enable the animal test subject to experience a boosted measure of blood flow to the heart muscle as a means to counteract the ischemic effect.
AICAR and Boosted Energy Regulation
According to scientific study based on animal test subjects, it has been determined that AICAR can play a vital role in boosting the regulation of energy. The first boost tied to the peptide is based on its ability to boost the flow of blood through an animal test subject’s circulatory system in order to provide energy more efficiently. Because of this process, it is though that animal test subjects can function at an elevated level of activity over a longer interval of time before degradation brought upon by fatigue begins to manifest. The second boost that is associated with the peptide is linked to the way in which AICAR is associated with adipose tissue, also known as body fat. Because AICAR has been shown to provide acceleration to an animal test subject’s metabolic processes, it has been determined through scientific study that the presence of the peptide can cause the breaking down of fat cells on a much quicker basis. This process is done as a means of compensation for the boost in metabolism. That said, it has been determined that this accelerated breaking down of body fat only occurs when an animal test subject stays on a regulated diet and does not experience a boosted intake of food.
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